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Features of Clinical Skills Review: Scenarios Based on Standardized Patients 3rd Edition PDF
Following are the features of Clinical Skills Review: Scenarios Based on Standardized Patients 3rd Edition PDF:
More cases = more success on your exam
When you take your clinical skills exam, every case you know counts. Prepare quickly and efficiently for your clinical exam with the updated third edition of this bestselling OSCE study guide. Written by Canadian doctors, Clinical Skills Review presents 134 cases based on scenarios you’ll encounter on the MCCQE II and CFPC certification exams.
An essential resource for Canadian medical students and international medical graduates seeking a licence to practise medicine in Canada, Clinical Skills Review is also a valuable supplemental guide for the USMLE Step 2 CS.
Features of the new edition include:
- Comprehensive coverage of typical clinical situations.
- A systematic approach to clinical skills.
- Indexes of cases and medical abbreviations for easy reference.
- Time-tested mnemonics to help you excel on the exam.
- Aids for group study, since practice is the best way to prepare.
- Cases organized by categories found on the MCCQE II: Medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, preventive medicine and community health, psychiatry and neurology, and surgery.
About the Author
Dr. Christopher Naugler is a general pathologist and family physician with wide-ranging research, teaching, and clinical experience. He is a professor and the head of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Calgary, and a clinician-scientist at the Cumming School of Medicine.
Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.
How to use this book
Clinical skills exams—sometimes called “objective structured clinical examinations” or OSCEs—are a rite of passage for all physicians in training. These exams include the MCCQE II and the Certification Examination in Family Medicine in Canada, and equivalent exams in other countries such as the USMLE Step 2 CS in the United States.
This book is designed to help you prepare for these exams. Although simply reading through the cases in this book will be useful, the best way to study for a clinical skills exam is to practice. Groups of 3 or 4 work best, assigned to the following roles:
– Candidate: reads aloud a case from the list of cases at the back of the book. Reading aloud ensures that everyone knows the boundaries of the task. The candidate should then “perform the task” by formulating questions to ask the patient, or describing other procedures such as physical examinations or investigations, as required.
– Examiner: uses the notes for the case to formulate one or two pertinent questions to ask the candidate and to remind the candidate of any crucial steps they may have missed.
– Observers: help debrief the task. We recommend that observers pay particular attention to skills such as: communicating clearly and respectfully; setting appropriate priorities; engaging issues of medical ethics as needed; and resolving clinical situations that require the expertise of specialists.
Work through all the cases in the book in this way, changing roles each time.
Each case has time limit—either 5 minutes or 10 minutes—in keeping with the protocols for the Canadian clinical skills exams. In some instances, in an effort to be comprehensive, the cases set up more tasks than a candidate could realistically accomplish within the assigned time. It is still useful, however, to set a timer or stopwatch for the assigned time, to get a feel for “how long you have.”
Take the time to work through all the cases thoroughly and thoughtfully, so start at least a few months in advance of the exam. This will allow you to use each case to its fullest—exploring different issues and questions that each could contain—and allow you to gain some level of comfort and confidence in the face of an otherwise stressful exam.
We have tried to avoid the use of jargon as much as possible. However, in the interests of space we have used a number of abbreviations, and we have listed these in the abbreviations section at the back of the book.
Medicine is famous for the number of mnemonics that students have developed over the years to remember certain aspects of history or management, and we have given these as appropriate throughout the book. Memorizing the most important of these should prove useful in situations where you need to think on your feet.
No book of this nature can ever be “complete.” We encourage you to draw from other sources in preparing for your clinical skills exam. In particular, you should be familiar with advanced lifesaving (ALS) protocols, and should review general textbooks in each of the areas in which you will be tested.
Approach to clinical stations at the exam
At the exam, you will encounter clinical stations. Each will have a simulated patient and an examiner. Some stations—those about trauma or cardiac emergencies, for example—may also have a “helper” present such as a nurse.
In general you should ignore the examiner unless they specifically address you.
You should be dressed professionally and you should act professionally. Introduce yourself to the simulated patient and shake their hand if appropriate. If you are asked to perform a physical examination, ask the simulated patient for permission before you start.
Remember that, in a clinical examination like you are facing, the cases you are given to work through will be diagnosable. The examiners will not be trying to trick you. Therefore, if you are handed an ECG to interpret, the diagnosis will likely be straightforward. Furthermore, if you are asked to manage the patient based on the ECG findings, the diagnosis will likely be something that has an advanced life-saving algorithm like an acute myocardial infarction or ventricular fibrillation. Likewise, a lateral C-spine X-ray will be far more likely to show a fracture-dislocation than a rare congenital malformation; a chest X-ray will more likely show a tension pneumothorax than nonspecific findings. You get the picture.
Because the clinical stations aim to test you on relatively common, diagnosable entities, at least some of the examiners’ questions are predictable. While this book does not contain all possible scenarios, experience has shown that many stations at the exam will be similar to the scenarios described here.
If you are presented with an unfamiliar scenario, don’t panic! Even if you are completely lost, you can still often salvage a station by introducing yourself, acting professionally, performing a history of the presenting complaint, and reviewing symptoms, medications, allergies, family history, and social history. In doing so, you will likely uncover the information that will help you regroup and still do well. If all else fails, ask open-ended questions, such as “Is there anything else you want to tell me?” If you completely flop on a station, regroup and carry on for the next one.
A note on the scenarios
This book unpacks 133 cases organized around the major themes of the Canadian MCCQE II. These themes are logical and the cases are typical—they are on-point preparation for any clinical skills exam. Note that the cases are representative of cases encountered on the Canadian MCCQE II and the Certification Examination in Family Medicine in Canada, but are not direct “remembrances.”
General approaches to history taking
History taking is key to many stations in clinical exams, and so to many cases in this book. We present some general strategies for history taking below.
In all cases, it’s useful to begin history taking with a quick explanation to the patient, such as “I’m going to ask some questions to get some background information on your health and medical history.”
Generally, you should begin with questions about the present illness and then move to past medical history.
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS
Why are you here today?
When did this symptom/problem start?
What is the location?
What kind of pain is it (sharp, dull, throbbing)?
How bad is the pain on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high)?
Where does the pain radiate?
When did the pain begin?
What makes the pain worse? What makes it better?
Do you have other symptoms with the pain (e.g., nausea)?
PAST MEDICAL HISTORY
Ask questions to ascertain details about the following areas (mnemonic: PAM HUGS FOSS).
Previous presence of the symptom, previous conditions
Note that we describe specific aspects of this sequence in more detail below.
ALLERGY AND MEDICINES HISTORY
What prescription medication do you take? How long and what dosage?
What over-the-counter medications or preparations do you take? How long and what dosage?
Do you have any drug allergies? What was the reaction?
Do you have any nondrug allergies (e.g., food, environmental)? Do you carry an EpiPen?
Is there a family history of diabetes?
Is there a family history of high blood pressure?
Is there a family history of heart problems?
Is there a family history of seizures?
Do other diseases run in your family?
It’s wise to approach obstetrical and gynecological history taking with particular sensitivity: patients may feel embarrassed.
How old were you when you had your first period? (Or—as appropriate—when your breasts began to develop?)
How long is your usual cycle? How many days of bleeding are usual for you?
How many pads or tampons do you usually use per day? Are there clots?
Has there been a change in the timing of your cycle?
Do you use birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy?
Have you had a Pap smear before? What were the results of past Pap smears?
What gynecological procedures have you had (e.g., loop electrosurgical excision procedure, hysterectomy)?
Have you had any STDs?
Have you ever been pregnant? If so, how many times?
Have you miscarried? If so, at what stage of pregnancy?
Did you have any problems getting pregnant? Did you use any conception aids?
How many children do you have?
Were there any precipitous deliveries?
Were there any complications in pregnancy (e.g., hypertension, diabetes)?
For each child:
– What was the method of delivery?
– What was the gestational age of the baby?
– What was the baby’s birth weight?
What are your living arrangements?
What is your marriage history, family situation?
Do you drink alcohol? How much, how often?
Do you smoke?
Do you use recreational drugs?
Keep in mind that, in pediatric cases, patients often don’t speak for themselves, or may not speak with clarity.
How is your health today?
How was your health during your pregnancy?
How did the delivery go?
Do you have any concerns about bonding with your baby?
BABY/YOUNG CHILD’s HEALTH
How was your baby’s health after the delivery?
What was your baby’s birth weight?
What is your method of feeding your baby and how has that been going?
Has your baby had jaundice?
What are your baby’s stools like?
How often does your baby have a wet diaper?
ALL CHILDREN’s HEALTH
Do you give your child any supplements (vitamin K, iron) or medications?
Does your child have any allergies that you know of?
Are your child’s immunizations up to date?
What is your child’s diet like?
What is your child’s sleep cycle?
What activities does your child enjoy?
Do you have any concerns about your child in the following areas?
– gross motor or fine motor development
– vision, hearing
– expressive language, comprehension
– social skills, behavior
- ASIN : 1550594400
- Publisher : Brush Education; 3rd edition (September 30, 2013)
- Language : English
- Paperback : 304 pages
- ISBN-10 : 9781550594409
- ISBN-13 : 978-1550594409
- Item Weight : 1.1 pounds
- Dimensions : 6 x 0.69 x 9 inches
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